Ammer, Christine. The Harper Dictionary of Music. 2d ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
Antokoletz, Elliott. Twentieth-Century Music. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1992.
Brown, Howard M. Music in the Renaissance. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976.
Ewen, David. Composers Since 1900. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1969.
Ewen, David. Composers Since 1900. First Supplement. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1981.
Grout, Donald Jay and Palisca, Claude V. A History of Western Music. 5th ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1996.
Grove Music Online (grovemusic.com)
Hindley, Geoffrey, ed. The Larousse Encyclopedia of Music. New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1976.
March, Ivan, Edward Greenfield, and Robert Layton. The Penguin Guide to Compact Discs and Cassettes. London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1994, 2001.
Lebrecht, Norman. The Companion to 20th Century Music. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 20 vols. London: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1980.
Sadie, Stanley, ed. The Norton/Grove Concise Encyclopedia of Music. Revised and Enlarged. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1994.
Simms, Bryan R. Music of the Twentieth Century. New York: Schirmer Books, 1986.
Slonimsky, Nicolas. Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. 7th ed. New York: Schirmer Books, 1984.
Stolba, K Marie. The Development of Western Music. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
The medieval section condenses about 550 years into one column, but from 1400 on spacing is proportional (1/16″ = 1 year). Thus the rectangles enclosing first- and second-rank composers exactly correspond to their life spans and indicate precisely who lived when. Third- and fourth-rank composers are arranged by year of birth and (mostly) alphabetically from top to bottom. They’re also staggered to give a rough indication of their life spans.
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